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David M. Sander, Ph.D. ( )

If you are interested in developing a WWW site for your lab or organization, please feel free to contact me for any needed advice and/or assistance.

Virological Laboratory Techniques & Resources

  • BioGuide - PCR - general information about the polymerase chain reaction including primer design, hot-start, etc.
  • BioProtocol, Inc. - This site contains a large collection of high quality protocols for the life science researcher. These protocols include offerings from the virology field of study. The company has a highly reputable editorial board to oversee the quality of its protocol collection as well as an editorial staff committed to procuring and producing the highest quality protocols available on-line.
  • Detailed protocol for gold labeling proteins for electron microscopy. This protocol describes a modified antibody-protein A-gold technique that eliminates the aggregation problem that frequently occurs with the usual procedure.
  • Cell Biology Laboratory Manual by Dr. William H. Heidcamp, Biology Department, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, MN.
  • SPOTTER: a new tool to measure viral plaques. The plaque assay is a classical virological technique, originally developed for bacteriophages by Felix d'Herelle (1917). Dulbecco and Vogt subsequently adapted the assay for mammalian viruses, and it is still widely used for virus isolation and purification, and to determine viral titers. The plaque assay is also frequently used to study in vitro growth properties of mutant viruses. A freeware program,called SPOTTER, operating under Win95 and up, allows convenient and precise analysis of large numbers of plaques.
  • Protocol On-Line - an exhaustive collection of methods and protocols for molecular and cellular biology from academic and comercial laboratories. There is also a Q&A sections that may be helpful for solving lab technique problems.
  • Comprehensive Protocol Collection - This resource attempts to offer a comprehensive collection of molecular biology protocols. The site links to protocols either maintained directly by the Ambros Lab at Dartmouth or at other locations around the world.
  • The HHMI Virtual Lab: This interactive laboratory, developed with Shockwave, demonstrates how an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is carried out and some of the experimental problems that may be encountered. A free Shockwave plugin is required.
  • Molecular Biology Protocols - a General Resource from the NOAA of Molecular Methods, Manuals, and some great Links.
  • PCR in situ: New Technologies with Single Cell Resolution for the Detection and Investigation of Viral Latency and Persistance" from the University of Minnesota
  • PCR Jump Station - This site attempts to provide scientists with a comprehensive directory for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and related techniques.
  • is a new web site written by clinical laboratorians for clinical laboratorians. Designed to be a comprehensive resource for those interested in clinical laboratory practices, the site provides a mechanism of communication between laboratorians, access to experts in a variety of clinical fields, job and career information, and comprehensive links to laboratory sites, diagnostic companies, organizations & interesting topics.
  • Molecular Biology Protocols on the Web - a great collection of protocol links from the publishers of Molecular Biology Today.

Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Viruses

Virus Evolution

  • Noble Foundation Virus Evolution Page - This site is dedicated to the study of virus evolution. It includes a list of current references, web links, meeting lists and abstracts from the 1999 Virus Evolution Workshop.

Genomic Sequence Data of Viruses


  • Bioinformatics Help BBS -- A free service to encourage information sharing on the subject of bioinformatics and related topics within the biotech community. Features Q & A on databases, search strategies, and analysis tools.

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