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Biological Weapons and Warfare
Non-Governmental Organizations Related to BW
- The Council for a Livable World has short descriptions of Biological Weapons Related Arms Control Agreements from the Geneva Protocol of 1925 to the The Bilateral Destruction Agreement - 1990 between the U.S. and Soviet Union.
- The Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project is online at the Henry L. Stimson Center -- which concentrates on particularly difficult national and international security issues where policy, technology, and politics intersect.
- The Chemical and Biological Warfare website of the Project on Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and Preventing Biological Warfare at the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK, aims to provide a better means of spreading information on the process of strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) worldwide
- The Sunshine Project -- an international non-profit organization with offices in Hamburg, Germany and Austin, Texas, USA. We work against the hostile use of biotechnology in the post-Cold War era. We research and publish to strengthen the global consensus against biological warfare and to ensure that international treaties effectively prevent development and use of biological weapons.
- The Emergency Response and Research Institute (ERRI), of Chicago, IL, was founded to provide uncomplicated solutions to complex and demanding problems. Late in 1990, ERRI began to undertake a vastly different approach to providing news, information, research and communications services to the emergency response and government community. The EMERGENCY Bulletin Board System (BBS) went on-line on January 15, 1991 with a computer database retrieval service. ERRI has a special section on Emergency Response to Chemical/Biological Terrorist Incidents by Clark L. Staten, Executive Director, Emergency Response & Research Institute.
- The Federation of American Scientists Chemical and Biological Arms Control Program covers all aspects of chemical and biological weapons and their control, but concentrates, at present, on efforts to prevent the development and use of biological weapons (BW) and the further proliferation of BW programs. A major focus is the strengthening of the Biological Weapons Convention with a compliance regime and cooperative measures for the prevention of infectious disease.
- The Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament and Arms Limitation - An international collaborative program of research and communication to promote the global elimination of chemical and biological weapons and to strengthen the constraints against hostile uses of biomedical technologies and publisher of The CBW Conventions Bulletin (formerly the Chemical Weapons Convention Bulletin).
- Chemical and Biological Warfare Project - (CBW Project) is one of Stockholm International Peace Research Institute's (SIPRI) longest-running research projects. It focuses on developments in chemical and biological weapons, their actual or alleged use and acquisition, and efforts to obtain effective disarmament measures aiming at their total elimination.
- The Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute is a nonprofit corporation established to promote the goals of arms control and nonproliferation, with a special, although not exclusive focus on the elimination of chemical and biological weapons. It fosters this goal by drawing on an extensive international network to provide an innovative program of research, analysis, technical support, and education.
- Cal Poly Chemical and Biological Warfare Page - This page was developed by the students in Chem 450 at Cal Poly, SLO, during Spring, 1996. The goal is to provide an overview of chemical and biological warfare, weapons, and efforts to outlaw them.
U.S. Government BW Sites
Department of Defense (DoD)
- The Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University has published a Strategic Forum Report (Number 58, January 1996) Biological Warfare: A Nation at Risk--A Time to Act by the Honorable Richard Danzig, Under Secretary of the Navy.
- Defense Technical Information Center - A key element of the DoD Scientific and Technical Information Program, DTIC is the central Department of Defense facility for providing access to and facilitating the exchange of scientific and technical information.
- Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) consolidates a variety of disparate, yet related, Defense Department functions to deal more effectively with threats.
- Countering the Anthrax Threat - The DoD Anthrax Vaccine information site.
- DefenseLINK - the official web site of the Department of Defense:
- CP\CBD Web is the internet point-of-contact for United States Department of Defense Counterproliferation and Chemical Biological Defense Information. This website publishes Congressional Reports, Research Tools and information about Counterproliferation and Chemical/Biological Defense topics.
- Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering: Implications for the Development of New Warfare Agents - 1996 Acquisition of biotechnology, and biological weapons capabilities, is considerably easier than was the case in the 1940's and 1950's. This report provides information to the Congressional defense committees on the national security threats posed by such potential developments of new agents through advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering.
- Joint Service Chemical & Biological Defense Program Overview - This report contains a brief description of the USDoD's Joint efforts toward chemical & biological defense preparedness, with accomplishments and goals for the future. (7.8 Mb .pdf file)
- Nuclear Biological Chemical Defense Annual -- Report to Congress 2000 The NBC Defense Annual Report Series contains modernization plan summaries that highlight the USDoD's approach to improving the current NBC Defense equipment and resolve current shortcomings in USDoD programs. (4.5 Mb .pdf file)
- Proliferation: Threat and Response: reports on the military threat posed by the proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons -- weapons of mass destruction (WMD) -- and their delivery systems. Additionally, it addresses the Department of Defense response to counter this threat. The report focuses on the WMD and missile threat in three areas: the technology that supports these systems, a regional look at the current state of proliferation, and the DoD response. It also addresses the related problems of advanced conventional capabilities and generic problems of dual-use exports, covert purchasing networks, and concealment and mobility of WMD.
- Counterproliferation Program Review Committee Annual Report to Congress The CPRC Annual Report series presents the findings and recommendations of the committee to Congress, providing a comprehensive look at the current year's key USDoD CP accomplishments. Executive Summaries are online.(.4 Mb .pdf file)
- Dugway Proving Ground Home Page - Home page of the U.S. Dugway Proving Ground, location of many of the field tests of chemical and biological defense equipment and repository of historical chemical and biological warfare information.
Defense Advance Research Projects Agency
- Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency - general information on all DARPA programs and solicitations.
- The Nuclear Biological and Chemical Medical (Med-NBC) web page contains extensive medical documentation, training material, audio-video clips, a powerful search engine, and links to other related Internet sites.
- The U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM) Mission: Provide research, development and acquisition for nuclear, biological and chemical and obscurant equipment for U.S. forces; act as the Army nuclear, biological, and chemical defense commodity command; provide management of joint service nuclear, biological and chemical defense materiel; provide U.S. stockpile management and safe storage; provide installation management; prepare for, and respond to chemical and biological emergency events / accidents; provide weapons of mass destruction (chemical or biological) domestic preparedness support; conduct emergency remediation / restoration actions at chemical sites; provide successful planning, management, and execution of treaty responsibilities; and provide demilitarization support.
CBDCOM conducts the Armys research, concept exploration, demonstration and validation, engineering, manufacturing, development, and internal production of the following systems: chemical defense, obscuring smoke, aerosol, and flame weapons. Also, the Command includes the Program Director for Biological Defense Systems, the Executive Agent for Chemical Treaty Compliance, and the Project Managers for the Nuclear and the Biological Material Destruction (stockpile/ nonstockpile and maintenance of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal).
- Biological Integrated Detection System (BIDS) - The number of countries pursuing an offensive biological warfare program continues to increase. The priority of the Army's Biological Defense Program is to limit the effects of large area biological warfare attacks. The BIDS is being designed by the BIDS Team under the Chemical and Biological Defense Command of the U.S. Army at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Edgewood, Maryland. The entire program is under the Program Director for Biological Defense Systems. The BIDS consists of 5 major subcomponents: (1) Vehicle, (2) Shelter, (3) Auxiliary Equipment, (4) Power, and (5) Biological Detection Suite.
- Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center - is the Army's principle R & D center for chemical and biological defense technology, engineering, and service.
- The Chemical and Biological Defense Information Center (CBIAC), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, is a full service Department of Defense (DoD) Information Analysis Center (IAC) and administratively managed by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). The CBIAC serves as the focal point for Chemical and Biological Defense (CW/CBD). CBIAC collects, reviews, analyzes, synthesizes, appraises and summarizes information pertaining to CW/CBD. The CBIAC helps the DoD meet its demanding technological needs and implement its high-priority Research and Development (R&D) initiatives through the prompt and expert application of existing scientific and technical information. The CBIAC newsletter is available on-line.
- The Army Medical Department Center and School - Provides extensive information about the Armys Medical Department. Includes information on doctrine development and the use of medical NBC defense products.
- USAMRIID - United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases conducts research to develop strategies, products, information, procedures, and training programs for medical defense against biological warfare (BW) agents and naturally occuring agents of military importance that require special containment.
- The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command has Research information on Medical Chemical and Biological Defenses
- United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense
U.S. Air Force
- The College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education (CADRE) has publishes Battlefield of the Future - 21st Century Warfare Issues, with several chapters on Biological Warfare:
- Pamphlet on Medical Defense against Biological Weapon Attack
U.S. Navy & Marine Corps
- Navy Chemical and Biological Defense - Chief of Naval Operations N86DC and the Commandant of the Marine Corps discuss the strategic direction for Naval Operations into the 21st century.
Other U.S. Government
- The mission of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency is to strengthen the national security of the United States by formulating, advocating, negotiating, implementing and verifiying effective arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament policies, strategies, and agreements. In so doing, ACDA ensures that arms control is fully integrated into the development and conduct of United States national security policy. The site includes a page containing and index Biological Weapons Information.
- The Report of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses inlcudes a chapter on Chemical and Biological Weapons in Iraq.
- Emerging Infectious Diseases - The journal -- Emerging Infectious Diseases -- is part of CDC's plan for combatting emerging infectious diseases; one of the main goals of CDC's plan is to enhance communication of public health information about emerging diseases so that prevention measures can be implemented without delay. Emerging Infectious Diseases is peer reviewed and provides information on emerging infections in the following categories: Perspectives, Synopses, Dispatches, Research Studies, and Policy Reviews. Articles of Interest :
Russian BW Sites
Isreali BW Sites
Miscellaneous BW Sites
- The Biological Weapons Convention requires Parties not to develop, produce, stockpile, or acquire biological agents or toxins "of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, and other peaceful purposes," as well as weapons and means of delivery. The United States unilaterally renounced biological and toxin weapons in 1969. A list of signatories to the Convention is available.
- The Chemical Weapons Convention is a global treaty that bans an entire class of weapons of mass destruction, chemical weapons. The CWC bans the production, acquisition, stockpiling, transfer and use of chemical weapons. It entered into force April 29, 1997.
- Microbiology 101 Internet Text - Chatper XV, Addendum: Biological Weapons - Malignant Biology by Dr. Ron Hulbert at the University of Washington.
- Chem-Bio.com - Focal point for resources on Chem-Bio terrorism.
- A Germ Warfare Timeline for U.S. prisoners of war in Manchuria who may have been victims of WWII era germ-warfare experimentation. This page is provided by Global Alliance for Preserving the History of World War II in Asia, on the China News Digest web site.
- SpecialOperations.Com - Information on the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and more links for both chemical and biological warfare are available at this site.
- The Other Holocaust: Nanjing Massacre, Unit 731 & Unit 100. This site is devoted to exposing Japanese atrocities in WWII, including biological warfare experiments involving U.S. prisoners of war.
- Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets - Lord Jeffrey Amherst's letters discussing germ warfare against American Indians. This site does a very nice job of outlining the issue of biological warfare used against the American Indians.
- Applied Science and Analysis, ASA Inc., an international organization, was established in 1983 to specialize in nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) defense and protection issues world wide. From 1983 to the present, ASA's concentration of capabilities has continuously expanded. ASA also publishes the ASA Newsletter, the international journal in the NBC Defense field read in more than 121 countries.
- Heritage Foundation Policy Paper on Bioterrorism - Microbes and Mass Casualties: Defending America Against Bioterrorism - by James H. Anderson, Ph.D., a Defense and National Security Analyst at The Heritage Foundation.
"Bioterrorism is a looming threat, increasingly so within the borders of the United States. It no longer is a question of if a bioterrorist attack will happen, but of when. Biological weapons are inexpensive to manufacture, and manufacturing facilities are nearly impossible to detect. The United States needs to focus greater attention and resources toward protecting the American people from suffering mass casualties at the hands of terrorists."
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